The Theatre of Communications

theatre

The business of persuasion, (or communications/PR if you prefer) is a performing art.

A sense of theatre is crucial. Without it we are left with something which inevitably fails to be memorable, fails to persuade and change minds and behaviour – the objective of all communication.

When you’ve seen a good dramatic play, musical, opera, comedy set, or film what makes it most memorable for you?

Usually people say it was a compelling story, believable players, great lines, clever direction. Sometimes it’s more personal – it’s how it made you feel. It was the atmosphere, emotion, engagement … the inclusion.

Now think of a business (or PR) presentation you’ve seen, or maybe even you’ve given. Can the same be said about the business presentation as the performance, and if not? why notng one yourself, how often have you felt like this?

Sometimes people say that one is entertainment and one is work, that business meetings are supposed to be more serious (dull?), they’re about information – so more what we know that what we feel?

I would suggest to that although they are clearly different, with a different purpose, wouldn’t we prefer a business audience to be smiling and clapping too?

People are much more likely to listen better, hear our messages, and feel good about the whole transaction if we have communicated with them, rather than at them.

All communication needs rational engagement … but it’s more effective if it has emotional connection.

This is particularly true of new business pitches when the audience have to sit through a number of presentations trying to answer the same question. When we are pitching we have to bring stand out ideas, the best team, the most experience and right expertise. But none of that can be effective if the client doesn’t feel good about the experience and if they don’t remember it. What makes a difference is if there are memorable moments that they just can’t get out of their heads.

Whether it’s an internal meeting, pitch to a journalist or politician, or a new business pitch, we can help them to feel good and to remember by bringing some sense of theatre into our communications.

The importance of getting a sense of theatre performance into business presentations was underlined to me by no less a person than Sir Bob Geldof.

Bob joined a McDonald’s European Marketing & Comms Conference I’d organised for our in-house teams and agencies in Nice in south of France. Bob was booked, at vast expense, to share his experiences from running Band Aid and Live Aid, and to talk about making a difference in the world.

Truly inspirational and after around two hours of Sir Bob there wasn’t a dry eye in the room from both laughter and tears.

I thought it had gone really well, but as he came of stage he turned to me and said … “That was total shite”.

I was taken aback and tried to reassure him that he had gone down really well. But he stopped me and said “No I was fecking brilliant, its this…” and pointed to the stage and the room. He said “the stage looks like crap and what are those fecking flowers doing there” he said pointing at some nice beige cloths covering tables and some conference-type flower displays in front.

What you have to understand he said is that “this is show business.”

In the bar afterwards he tried to sell us the services of his  event management company Ten Alps, but that aside I thought he had made a good point.

It’s not that everything we do should be show-bizzy in the sense of being all-singing all-dancing cabaret. It is more thinking about what makes our work stand out and be memorable.

In Sir Bob’s case it was all about the story and the performer. I’d say in his case that was enough. He didn’t need any help really – but most of us do not have a story like that to tell and we aren’t him.

More usefully – it was frank and good feedback – when we ask clients after a failed pitch for that kind of feedback they’re not often so forthright!

 

The first thing to remember is that when we are at work and “front of house” before a client or someone we want to influence, it is show time! Whenever we go into a meeting, big or small, think of it as putting on a show. Not that we should create a whole new artificial persona and pretend to be somebody we aren’t. But think about it. When we’re at work we are not usually the same person we are at home, when we’re with friends and family. When we come to work we go into ‘work mode’. We are still the same people, but just a different version, another side, of that same person.

Can you think of a more memorable entrance than the one we saw the Queen make to the Olympic Stadium to open the London Games in 2012? This was the biggest of all events with the biggest worldwide TV audience. The Queen is pretty well-known. She could have just tipped up in a Rolls-Royce and every one would have been happy, but would that have been the moment we were all talking about the next day? She made a memorable moment with the illusion of that parachuted-in entrance. It was the talking point.

OK so I’m not suggesting we need to jump out of a helicopter, or enlist the services of James Bond, but to make the right sort of entrance for the occasion. It should be appropriate and relevant, but something that makes us stand out. If even the Queen, the most photographed person on the planet needs to make a bit of a special effort – then so do we.

This is most likely to be a thought on timing – when and how you enter a room. Are you there before the audience, go in with them, or when they are ready for you. In a pitch meeting this will probably be decided for you. In other situations you may have more control and flexibility.

Being memorable is good. Being memorable in a good way is better! So make an entrance which is …

 

  • Appropriate
  • Relevant
  • Stand out
  • Memorable

 

Knowing who is in the room is vital. Communication is not about sending messages, it is about receiving them, so who are we communicating with – age, nationality, culture, gender, background – all of these can make a difference.

Just imagine this in a show biz setting trying to present high opera to pop boy band audience, or Newsnight to Newsbeat audiences – although maybe I’m doing both genres an injustice – there is a place for cross-over and fusion thinking – but probably not in our presentations. Knowing who is in the room and what they are like, and what they like, is crucial.

Putting on the right show in the right place to the right people can make the difference between a long run and closing early in theatre. The same applies in our world, and we have more chance than they do to find out who are audience are going to be.

In the theatre, shows need to be pitched to the audience. The trick is finding out what your audience like, how they like presentations to be made, what their own corporate culture is like, what they know already and what they want to know – and why.

The best interaction with a business audience is when they have a mental checklist in their head they are ticking off as you speak, and a heart pumping that tells them they like and care about what you are saying.

In the theatre, in films or on a music stage the key is to get on the same wave length as the audience. Performers don’t talk at audiences, they talk with us – they include us in their experience, they share and involve to make us care.

With audiences, ask…

  • Who are they?
  • What do they know already?
  • How do they like to receive information?
  • Why are they there?

 

In theatre, you can never over rehearse. So a thought on preparation and planning for any meeting from a stadium event to a job interview.

If you can (and it’s not always possible) try to find out what the setting for the meeting is like.

The type of stage involved – the setting, the space, makes a huge difference to a play if it is performed on a proscenium stage or “in the round”, whether it is a music or comedy performance in an arena or in an intimate venue. The same is true for us. Different rooms have different atmospheres and allow us to have more of less variety in the way we perform. Knowing what the options are is the first step.

Being aware of any possible distractions or obstacles. In  the theatre this can be noises off including mobile phones and other distractions or bad acoustics or sight of the stage. In business it can be those things too! Audiences that walk out while we are talking or just check their emails need to be anticipated.

On positive side, look for opportunities to use the space and the setting. What can we do with walls, tables and other furniture for example. Can people see screens or are they looking in the wrong directions?

And lastly technology. In the theatre there is always a technical rehearsal and crucially a sound check. If we are using projectors, sound, microphones, or at conferences – maybe autocue – always try to check them.

When I was working with Margaret Thatcher one of my most important tasks was to check the height of lecterns and audience eye-lines for her. The worst, or one of the worst things would be for her to be seen peeping over the top of a big lectern.

The worst was not checking something else – the background. I once allowed her to stand in front of an exhibition stand for a water company with a sign over her head reading “We stop leaks”. This was the week of an alleged cabinet leak. The picture was on every front page. The lesson was always look around and particularly behind where you stand. The same applies for us in strange rooms and venues we are not familiar with. Look behind!

Things that are useful to find out are:

  • Size and space to use
  • Distractions and obstacles
  • Opportunities
  • Technology
  • Look behind

 

Talking of props …

In the performing arts a lot of attention is given to scene setting, both through the performance itself and physically.

So as well as thinking about the space itself (as we just have), let’s now think about the things in that space and other things we can introduce – props.

The most obvious business presentation prop is never seen on a theatrical stage – the dreaded PowerPoint, or other presentation projection. Slides, films, and videos are all just props. Like props in the theatre they should add to and not take away from the action. They should not get in the way or take over.

The three cardinal sins most often  committed by business presenters are:

  1. To speak to the screen and not the audience
  2. To read the slides
  3. To have slides which for good or bad reasons make the audience look at them instead of you.

A fourth sin (of what could be a very long list) would be when they don’t work, particularly when sound or vision fails when including a film.

Presentational tools such as slides and films can help to illustrate  point made, to help them to be more memorable, but they should never be allowed to take over. You might as well just send the audience the deck. In the theatre it would be odd if the director came on stage to tell us that the actors are irrelevant and we will just be getting a copy of the script to read ourselves.

Part of more positive scene setting can be dressing a room. Not with stage scenery, but maybe with flipcharts, show boards, or other physical things that I call the toys, which as long as they are relevant and do not distract from the presentation, can help to create the connection we seek by giving the audience something to touch, feel, play with. As a client, I always liked “toys” at presentations – that moment when the presenter hands something to us and says – this is what it would look like. This could just be a nicely bound version of the proposal or a report.

Although not always practical, part of the stage recce if you get to do one should look at lighting and atmosphere. Something as simple as opening or closing a blind, dimming a light or standing where you can be heard better, can all make a big difference.

 

Dressing right for the parts we play is extremely important.

Many years ago when I was involved with the Conservative Party I used to teach on Candidates training courses and one of the things we did was to talk about appropriate dress codes.

I remember when on one session a colleague of mine came into the room took his jacket and tie off, rolled up his sleeves and asked the audience of be-suited candidates what this had communicated to them.

To which one older gentleman replied “well, to me it says you are a complete slob”.  Not the reply he wanted but it made the point that there is rarely a right or wrong – it was it is relevant and appropriate for the audience and for the performance you want to give.

The friend who gave that reply is now an MP. I’m not sure if he makes such sartorial observations in the House of Commons.

The point of that story was thinking about how the audience receives a message, not what you want them to think.

Keeping with the political theme, this picture shows Margaret Thatcher when prime minister in the Number 10 flat choosing clothes for events she was to attend. Mrs T gave huge attention to her appearance.

She had a personal hairdresser and a dresser. This was not because she was vain, far from it, but because she understood the importance of playing a part and of the power that came from wearing the right clothes, make-up and hairstyle. She had a Director of Presentation, Harvey Thomas, who had made his name running crusades for evangelist Billy Graham.

Harvey spent his time thinking entirely about the right stage setting, the height of a lectern, the speed of an autocue, the route walked from A to B, the camera angles and eye-lines, and the right dress styles and colours for each occasion.

I remember one rather grey, dull, middle-aged, male Minister saying to me once that one of his biggest challenges was that when he went into a room nobody knew who he was, or sometimes even that he was there. He told me that the day before he had turned up as a speaker at an event and the organiser had asked him if he knew when the Minister was due to arrive.

That never happened to Mrs T. In a hall of thousands or a one to one meeting she had presence. We always knew when she was in a room. Usually as the (other) shortest person in the room she could be lost in a sea of people, but her distinctive style helped her to stand out. At the time she was often the only woman in the room of course, so that helped, but my point is simply about using style to help you stand out – in a good way!

The key is simply dressing for and looking the part. Clothes and style can help you do that.

One consultant I used to use to train executives at Microsoft used to tell them that quality matters. He didn’t mean that you have to dress like a catwalk model or have a massive clothing budget.

He used to say, a few well tailored outfits are better to have than a wardrobe of things that don’t fit properly. He advised people to think about the accessories like ties, scarves, handbags. Cheaper to get a smart tie or scarf – or piece of jewellery to lift a dull suit for example.

One piece of advice he gave which I’ve always remembered concerned coats and bags. He said never to look as though you are a visitor, look like you belong. This is particularly good advice for job applicants going for interview. If you turn up with coats, umbrellas, and bags it’s obvious that you have come from “outside”.

His advice was – if you have to have these because it’s cold or wet or you’ve travelled and so have a bag – try to lose them in cloakrooms, outer officers and the like – or if travelling by car to a meeting – leave them in the car. When you go into the room you want to look as though you are an “insider” and belong there, or if going for a job interview – to look as though you already fit in.

If you think any of this doesn’t matter, just put yourself back in the audience again watching a show. You hear the lines, you see the set, you follow the story… but how often have you been distracted from these asking “why did she wear that?”

Think back to our sense of theatre. Ask – What is the part you are playing? And dress appropriately.

If you get this right, there is a bonus and that is about confidence. If you look good you will feel good and be more confident.

It’s unlikely that J.K. Rowling will be our story writer, but she is not a bad role model for any business communicator who wants to make an impact and be memorable. Great storytellers make us care about what they have to say because we feel empathy in the communication.

This is where the rational engagement and emotional connection come together.

Great stories have interesting characters, heroes and villains, a quest or desired end-story contrasted with what happens when we fail, and lines of dialogue which resonate. They also have great scripts.

All performers delivering stories, including “Impro,” have a script. Nobody makes it up as they go along. In fact most impro performer rehearse more than anyone else because they might need to be able to draw on dozens of scenarios thrown at them in seeming random ways.

The only performers who appear to be doing that are those who have so much experience of their material that it becomes part of their DNA. Often they are solo performers, for example with stand-up comedians, but most theatrical performances involve a cast of characters who play off each other and so need to feed lines to each other.

A lot of good acting is about being able to react and respond. The same is true in a business presentation, unless solo of course. So think not just about your lines and delivery, but how others need to play off you. It’s a team sport.

In business presentations as in the theatre, we always need a script. The trick in theatrical performance and business presentation is to appear not to be scripted. The only place you can get away with reading a script is on radio. Everywhere else – forget reading. Remember your lines.

And as a final thought on this, think about the structure of your story…

The Three Act play is perhaps the best and simplest model to use.

Act 1: Introduce the characters and situation and ends with an “inciting incident” – in our case that might be our take on a client challenge painting a picture of an opportunity or something that could go wrong if they don’t work with us! We need to paint a picture of the problem to solve.

Act 2: Rising action, A protagonist tries to solve the problem – that’s us being the hero – ends with a climax – the big idea, the problem solved.

Act 3: Is a description of what good looks like – what will the world be like when you work with us and the hero has won the day!

This is about creating stages of a story that build to an inevitable conclusion.

I often use the phrase “we are playing a part.” This is a thought on who plays it best.

We can’t always play all the parts.

It’s important to think about who we put into teams for pitches, presentations, meetings and events and who we show as our team in documentation.

Different personalities, expertise and experience to bring. But also important to think remember that we are sometimes acting a role in the team. Basically we write and talk for a living. We also play a part. This is most obvious when we put new business pitch teams together.

When directors are casting in the theatre they sometimes have to resist putting in the big name actor, to cast the right actor. It’s a balance in business presentations just as it is in theatrical performances.

It’s also a question of team dynamics and personal chemistry – thinking about which people will complement each other best in a team performance.

Part of this is also concerned with making sure everybody has lines. If you are in the cast you need a speaking part. As a client, I can’t tell you how many times I sat through pitch presentations, wondering what the quiet person at the end of the table was there for.

The three best pieces of advice in communications are “prepare, prepare and prepare”.

Nobody has ever suffered from being over-prepared.

In the worlds of theatre, dance or music this is all about rehearsal. Performers of whatever kind rehearse all the time. It is probably the biggest part of their job. They spend more time doing this than anything else.

They also tend to do in front of each other and at some point in front of a mock audience. The two key stages in any performance are the Technical and then the Full Dress Rehearsal. We should do both too.

At one big conference speech I was responsible for, a keynote speech by my global CEO at the IOD Convention at the Royal Albert Hall, things went horribly wrong simply because he refused to rehearse. He famously in the company was a man who did not rehearse because he usually spoke off the cuff and delivered very personal and passionate speeches. But he only rarely spoke from a script and even more rarely spoke to big external meetings where the speakers were all on autocue.

The car crash started when he started to speak. By the end of the first paragraph it was clearly developing into a race between him and the autocue operator to see who could finish first. Because he had not rehearsed he didn’t know that she would take the speed from him, and she hadn’t heard him speak before and so didn’t know his pace.

The result was as he spoke faster, she moved the cue faster, then he got faster, and so did she. It was a disaster and entirely down to not rehearsing.

When there are multiple speakers involved in the same presentation, as in a new business pitch, it is as I said earlier a case of actors feeding each other those cues, so it is essential to rehearse to ensure a seamless handover. Ideally, presenters should appear to be having a conversation with the audience. This takes rehearsal not to catch each other out.

It is also crucial for learning lines. Of course there are occasions when it’s OK in business presentations to use prompt cards, even a prompt from a tablet, but personally I hate that. If you want to be credible you need to speak as if it is coming from you naturally, not something you are just reading out. Learning lines is important (even when you are reading) not least to overcome any pronunciation or story flow issues.

A word about merchandising the meeting.

We’ve all seen stuff like this at plays, musicals, concerts – it’s “I bought the t-shirt time, and cap, keyring and bear. Now obviously this happens in theatre because they want to flog us things. They are usually things we don’t need at high prices. But the rip-off is not the only reason.

These are all little aide memoires of your visit. They are marketing through branding. They are souvenirs and keepsakes.

In business presentations, of whatever sort, I do not recommend any of these – but maybe the thinking is relevant. This could be as simple as a document to leave behind, a card with an online link, or a full version of the presentation given. Think about going to a show and taking away a Programme. It tells you the cast of characters and reminds you of the show.

There maybe also times when branded pens and pads are OK, more often perhaps an opportunity to give chocolates, biscuits or cakes. We’ve done this with some success in different contexts – the point is as with so much else in this session – it needs to be appropriate and relevant.

 

I’d like to close Act Two with a thought or two about “Backstage”.

What we see on stage in a theatrical production is of course an illusion. A lot of what makes it seem to be real is in the backstage work that creates the illusion.

I think the relevance to our world here is thinking about the parts that not just our “front of house” people play but the parts played by our colleagues who help make things happen. They should not b e seen. It helps if people believe the illusion and think things happen by magic.

Years ago one of my hobbies was designing and operating stage lighting for amateur dramatic shows. The very worst thing to happen after a performance was for someone to come up to me and say – great lighting. The point of stage lighting is to create an atmosphere on stage – not for people to notice it. If it’s done well, people should think there really was moonlight or sunlight shining, that it was day or night, or inside or outside.

The same applies to us. They shouldn’t notice – but it does matter. To tip for the “stars” of the show – is to value the people and their work that makes you look good, and not to forget the little people in your Oscar acceptance speech! 

And … breathe.

Actors do a lot of this. Well we all do. But they do it in a very organised and structured way.

They go through a whole series of weird and wonderful breathing exercises to open up the airways, to give them enough puff to deliver long lines, and the power to “project” their voices with strength not (just) volume.

When I was training to be a Conservative Party agent I was sent on an external public speaking course run by an old stage and screen actor from 1950s and 60s called Victor Maddern. Victor pops up as one of those chirpy cockney soldiers or sailors in most war films of the period.

When introduced to him my first thought was one of dread. I was being taught to make political speeches by an elderly bit part actor. But he was priceless. Wonderful actOR anecdotes, a charming and funny man and – probably 90% of the three days we spent on this course consisted of breathing exercises. Victor was big on breathing properly. Victor was RADA trained and the biggest thing he seemed to have learned was how to breathe properly.

Don’t worry I’m not going to take you through those classes or suggest you use the formal actor techniques. But from those days with Victor I’ve always remembered just three things which I think are relevant to share with you today.

The first is to use your lungs. When acting, public speaking, business presenting or doing training sessions like this, we talk a lot. To get those words out we need to take air in. So before speaking just spend some time inhaling (quickly) and exhaling (slowly) to fill and empty your lungs.

This will achieve two things – firstly it gives you the air you need, and secondly it slows your heart rate down and so makes you calmer.

The second is to break up long pieces of speech into small and manageable parts – mostly to give yourself time to take in more air so you don’t suddenly find yourself sounding like a deflating balloon, but also to create pauses (more of this in a moment).

The third is to find somewhere private before you go into a room to speak where you can speak out loud without people thinking you are talking to yourself. The idea is simply to start the motor running. If you go into a room and start presenting from a cold standing start it will take time for your vocal chords to warm up.

Now actors go through some very funny exercises to do this, but we can do it just by rehearsing some opening words. This also helps to start the presentation in a more confident way having already tried out the words.

Still with the late Mr Maddern in mind, another tip he left me with was that no matter how big the audience, the trick of engaging and connecting with the audience is to treat it as a conversation between two people. He described this as intimacy.

The thought here is quite simply that in the theatre actors are having a conversation with each other which we are watching. They do not (except in some special cases) speak directly to or at the audience. Our business variation on that is to have a conversation with the audience and not to or at them.

Whenever possible and appropriate, use “we” not “you” in the dialogue to be more inclusive, and most of all think about how your communication is being received, not how we send it. This applies to content and style.

Put yourself in the position of the audience and try to be your own most constructive critic.

I mentioned the importance of the pause. Mark Twain said “The right word may be effective, but nothing … was ever as effective as the rightly timed pause.”

The undisputed master of this art is former President Obama. Tony Blair was pretty good at it but sometimes hammed it up. Mr Obama seems to pull it off with dignity every time. It is worth watching and listening to the master.

Pauses are valuable to give the audience time to absorb and process what you’ve just said, to highlight an important point you’ve just made, or to signpost something you are about to say. It also gives you time to think.

And not least, as with President Obama’s speeches in creates that memorable moment.

Apart from anything else – if you don’t pause occasionally, you’ll wear the audience out and they will just stop listening.

From a political actor back to a theatrical one.

I have used the phrase Memorable Moments a few times. These might be from memorable words, lines or images. Clever straplines and one-liners don’t stand by themselves – they need a lot of deep back up to make them come alive.

But the magic can be in the way we use those moments and make the most of them. The trick is not letting them be buried in big presentations or documents. This moment is one which needs to stand alone as a memory – distinct from the play – or bigger story – around it.

So job done… but not quite.

And one more thing …

Always leave a parting thought. Sometimes this can be an extra thought, a final idea or a pay off line summarising the main messages. The point here is that you already think the show is over – this a planned encore.

The late Steve Jobs was the master of this – he even used to put it up on the screen behind him. On a couple of famous occasions he finished business-like presentations on matters of the day, and then said – oh and one more thing – and launched a new ground breaking product.

What this does more than anything else is to end on a high, to wake up the audience – and leave them with the good stuff.

Here’s my “one more thing” thought for you… DO IT WITH PASSION.

More than anything else on stage, the magic can come through the demonstration of real passion. Audiences want to know that performers care.

They want that to be so strong that they forget they are just performing. In business communications, clients want their agencies to care about them and to forget that they care more about their own bottom-line.

Being passionate is sometimes a tough one for Brits. Easier for our Southern European friends, natural for Australians and compulsory for Americans.

This does need to be audience-relevant, dialled up or down depending on the type of people.

But the consistent point is that we need to demonstrate that we care. Care about what we are saying, care about the client and their business, and care that we want to win.

It’s a frame of mind. It might be subtle. It might be overt. But it must feel real.

The best examples, and contrast, I have ever seen of this last point about showing passion came from the ying and yang of Steve Ballmer and Bill Gates when I was with Microsoft.

Speaking to stadium size audiences of developers, partners or employees Steve as CEO and Bill as Chief Software Architect and Co-founder used to do a double act for the big presentations.

Steve was infamously like an animal on stage. This is him in full flight. He used to run up and down the stage, shouting, creaming and sweating a lot. He always finished sessions by standing centre stage and to the accompaniment of booming rock music – scream – “I LOVE THIS COMPANY-E-E-E-E-E-E.” And at one event I attended he topped it with 2 minutes just screaming “KILL GOOGLE!”

Bill would then come on and stand still, speak very quietly in that almost Micky Mouse squeaky voice, nearly always holding a tech device of some kind, and talk to the stadium as if chatting to you in your living room over an iced tea. He would never boast or crow. He would enthuse about whatever piece of innovation had taken his fancy. The archetypical computer nerd he was like a kid in a sweet shop and his enthusiasm was infectious.

As infectious as Steve’s pumping rock passion. But in a very different way, his way.

So my final thought is from these observations on the worlds of performance and presentation in theatre and in business, you need to take those parts that would seem to be most relevant for the occasion and for you.

The best examples, and contrast, I have ever seen of this last point about showing passion came from the ying and yang of Steve Ballmer and Bill Gates when I was with Microsoft.

Speaking to stadium size audiences of developers, partners or employees Steve as CEO and Bill as Chief Software Architect and Co-founder used to do a double act for the big presentations.

Steve was infamously like an animal on stage. This is him in full flight. He used to run up and down the stage, shouting, creaming and sweating a lot. He always finished sessions by standing centre stage and to the accompaniment of booming rock music – scream – “I LOVE THIS COMPANY-E-E-E-E-E-E.” And at one event I attended he topped it with 2 minutes just screaming “KILL GOOGLE!”

Bill would then come on and stand still, speak very quietly in that almost Micky Mouse squeaky voice, nearly always holding a tech device of some kind, and talk to the stadium as if chatting to you in your living room over an iced tea. He would never boast or crow. He would enthuse about whatever piece of innovation had taken his fancy. The archetypical computer nerd he was like a kid in a sweet shop and his enthusiasm was infectious.

As infectious as Steve’s pumping rock passion. But in a very different way, his way.

So my final thought is from these observations on the worlds of performance and presentation in theatre and in business, you need to take those parts that would seem to be most relevant for the occasion and for you. This is not a “how to do it” guide to follow by numbers – more a piece to provoke thoughts that you may not have to bring some of that sense of theatre into our communications.

 

This is not a “how to do it” guide to follow by numbers – more a piece to provoke thoughts that you may not have to bring some of that sense of theatre into communications. I’d welcome your thoughts … or as we say in the theatre – your critic’s review.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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